Repetitive NumPy Concatenations


I recently had to construct a couple of numpy arrays from a handful of files. I quickly did something like this:

files = list_of_files()
arr = np.array([], dtype=np.float32)
for f in files:
    iarr = get_arr_from_file(f)
    arr = np.concatenate([arr, iarr])

This was taking a lot longer than I thought it should. There's a very simple reason: I was copying my arr variable len(files) times to construct a final arr (and every iteration of the loop arr was getting larger). This was of course unnecessary.

A better (and, to those who like to use the label "pythonic", more pythonic) way to do it:

arr = np.concatenate([get_arr_from_file(f) for f in list_of_files()])

So when it comes to repetitive NumPy concatenations... avoid it. A quick test in IPython:

import numpy as np

def bad():
    arr = np.array([], dtype=np.float32)
    for i in range(100):
        iarr = np.random.randn(100000)
        arr = np.concatenate([arr, iarr])
    return arr

def good():
    arrs = [np.random.randn(100000) for i in range(100)]
    return np.concatenate(arrs)

%timeit bad()
%timeit good()

The output:

1.73 s ± 2 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)
247 ms ± 2.52 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)

Quite the difference.